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BIOL 1114 Exam #1 (Preview) September 16, 2013

Use a #2 pencil to fill in the information on your NCS answer sheet. Put your O-Key Account Username in the boxes indicated for LAST NAME and darken the appropriate circles. Write your Name (Last, First) and “Star” or “NoStar” in the space above the boxes containing your O-Key Account Username. Darken the (S or N) in the last column of the name circles. Enter the number 1331 and darken the corresponding circles in the first 4 columns of the “Student ID.” Failure to perform this correctly will incur a -10pt handling fee. Read all questions and answers carefully before choosing the single BEST response for each question. Feel free to ask the instructor for clarification.

A group of animal scientists decided to measure the amount of oxygen consumed by different species at different ambient (environmental) temperatures. Individual animals, each representing 1 of 6 different species, were kept healthy in separate cages. Biosensors implanted within each animal measured both core body temperature (in oC) and the rate of oxygen consumption (in millimoles of oxygen/gram of biomass/min). Thermostats were adjusted to rapidly give the cages the desired ambient temperature.

<- This diagram represents the metabolic rate of animal 6

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ELVIS

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At the beginning of the summer, the air conditioning in LSW had been working incorrectly, making it very cold on the third floor around the LRC and the home of Elvis the Iguana and several other insects and reptiles on display. If reptiles get too cold, they may die. This usually happens because food material builds in their intestines and causes blockage. While observing the lizards, you begin to notice how cold it is in the LRC because you are shivering!

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Mouse

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You have designed experiments to evaluate the how the anatomy and physiology of animals that natively occupy warm temperatures at low altitudes may be changed by living at high altitudes where water is more scarce and temperatures are cooler. In one experiment, you assign individuals of the common mouse, Mus musculus, which typically have plentiful access to water, to various experimental groups, including: 1) access to unlimited water, 2) 50% less water access, 3) 25% less water access, and 4) 10% less water access and breed them under these conditions for several generations. You have raised mice at 4 different temperatures that represent the range of temperature present from low to high altitudes on a mountain (37°C, 25°C, 17°C, and 10°C) during the summer. In your temperature experiment, your control group is held at 37°C.

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Your morning workout includes jogging through your neighborhood. Jogging during the warm and humid morning temperatures of the summer months always makes you sweat intensely. On rare occasions your leg muscles did not receive sufficient oxygen and will develop muscle cramps. While exercising at the gym you notice that people with light complexions turn reddish as they exercise.

Find a jogger

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As the newest members of the research team at the pharmaceutical company Panacea, you and your lab partner are responsible for maintaining the mammalian cell cultures for use in drug trials. The other members of the team are investigating whether a new drug, “Version 7G” is toxic to the cells and if so, at what levels. You are responsible for growing two groups of cells in a solution containing 0.9% NaCl, supplemented with nutrients and vitamins, and kept at either 37°C or 40°C. Even though these cells have a mammalian origin, they have been removed from an organism and can no longer regulate their own temperature. One day as your lab partner prepares a solution for a new experimental trial, he accidentally adds 9.0% NaCl instead of 0.9%! Unfortunately you place the cells in the solution without realizing the mistake. When you look at the cells in your microscope you notice that they have become shriveled in appearance as opposed to their normally flattened shape. Experiments conducted by your team reveal that “Version 7G” inhibits cell metabolism by producing holes in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, eventually resulting in cell death.

Cells

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Taylor’s salamander, Ambystoma taylori, is a critically endangered species that lives only in Laguna Alchichica, a saline crater lake in Puebla, eastern-central Mexico. The salamander is found at depths of 30m where the water is typically cooler and the O2 (oxygen) concentration is lower. Taylor’s salamander is unusual because all other amphibians live in freshwater and cannot tolerate water with that concentration of salt. Efforts to introduce local freshwater fish into the lake have been unsuccessful. A continuing threat to these salamanders is the continuing loss of water from the lake by evaporation which is resulting in increasing salinity. Taylor’s salamanders have gills rather than lungs and it is through these that O2 enters the salamander from the water. A scientist hypothesizes that active transport is the mechanism by which Taylor’s salamanders survive in saline waters. As a Taylor’s salamander swims up from a depth of 30m, it is likely to encounter warmer water. At depths of 30m, it is probable that there is less O2 in the water.

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