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BIOL1114

PREVIEW MATERIAL FOR EXAM 4 - SPRING 2014

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Use a #2 pencil to fill in the information on your NCS answer sheet. Put your O-Key Account Username in the boxes indicated for LAST NAME and darken the appropriate circles. Write your Name (Last, First) and "Star" or "NoStar"in the space above the boxes containing your O-Key Account Username. Darken the (S) or (N) in the last column of the name circles. Enter the number 1414 and darken the corresponding circles in the first 4 columns of the "Student ID." Failure to perform this correctly will incur a -10pt handling fee. Read all questions and answers carefully before choosing the single BEST response for each question. Feel free to ask the instructor for clarification.


Cephalopods

Cephalopods are active aquatic predators, and include diverse groups such as squids, octopuses, cuttlefish, and the Nautilus. Many of these mollusks have been used as experimental model organisms for the study of neural and visual anatomy and function, developmental biology, and behavior. All cephalopods have well developed eyes, highly sensitive tentacles, and the ability to quickly escape predators through jet-propulsion by forcefully expelling water through a ventral funnel. Cephalopods can detect odors from prey through their chemoreceptors located on their tentacles. The body temperatures of all cephalopods fluctuate with the ambient ocean water temperature. Most squids have a similar body shape, but can differ dramatically in their body size, with the giant squid, Architeuthis, reaching over 40ft (29.12 m) in length.

Giant Squid


A fisherman caught a squid in the ocean (3.0% salt), but decided to release it only after returning to the harbor located upstream on the Mississippi river (0.5% salt).

Harbor


You are interested in measuring the effect of water temperature on the metabolic rate of a tropical squid species usually living in ocean waters of 18˚C. Your experiment consists of 3 salt-water tanks at temperatures of 15˚C, 18˚C, and 21˚C.

Squid in fish tank


Dr. Mike Robio is a seasoned instructor at a large school in the southwest. He knows that to teach his cell biology class, he should learn what his students know, so he prepares a questionnaire for his students. Sensing that you might be a student interested in the new UTeach program starting at the university, which provides students the opportunity to earn a full biology degree AND high-school teaching certification in only four years with scholarships available for some of the classes, he asks you to help check his answers to the following questions about microorganisms and the processes that occur in them.

Mitochondria


Canary Islands

The Canary Islands are seven islands just west of the African continent. The islands gradually became colonized with life: plants, lizards, birds, etc. Three different species of lizards found on the islands are similar to one species found on the African continent (Thorpe & Brown, 1989). Because of this, scientists assume that the lizards traveled from Africa to the Canary Islands by floating on tree trunks washed out to sea. Lizards eat a variety of insects and plants.

Lizards


Lizards in container

OK lake

Your grandfather’s farm property includes a beautiful lake. Since he knew you were taking a biology course at OSU, he asked for your help with establishing a fish population in his lake. You agreed to help him figure out the necessary food web structure that would support a healthy fish population, but recommend your grandfather talk to his neighbors about keeping their cattle runoff under control. You suggest starting out with a water quality analysis that would identify the diversity and density of primary producers (algae – unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes) and primary consumers (planktonic crustaceans). He dreams of establishing a sustainable food chain of algae --> zooplankton --> minnows --> bass -->humans when he retires that will allow Grandad & Nana to eat nothing but fish (which he will have to try and catch all day).

Smallmouth bass


A fisherman caught a squid in the ocean (3.0% salt), but decided to release it only after returning to the harbor located upstream on the Mississippi river (0.5% salt).

Algal bloom

This spring (2014) you released 8 fish in your grandfather’s lake. The county extension agent estimates that the lake will support no more than 40 fish and has estimated a growth rate r = 0.6 fish/fish/year

Atrazine

The neighbor applies an artificial herbicide (Atrazine) to increase crop yield. Atrazine is also washed into the lake after a heavy storm. Atrazine, while effective in killing a variety of plants, is thought to increase mutation rate in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Atrazine bioaccumulates in aquatic species. Mutations caused the placement of eyes of some male frog to be less symmetrical and female frogs mated with such males less often.

Frog


Male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use their antlers as weapons against other males in combat for mating opportunities with female deer. The male who emerges dominant from the fighting gets to mate with multiple females, but large antlers can be heavy and make it harder to escape from predators

Deer


White-tailed deer can suffer from chronic wasting disease, which is an X-linked recessive trait. The gene responsible for causing chronic wasting disease has been sequenced and found to be 1346 nucleotides long.

CWD


White-tailed deer sometimes feed upon the Yew plant (Taxus baccata), which contains a toxin that stops the heart muscle from contracting. Studies indicate that synaptic transmission is unaffected.

Yew


Lack of nitrogen (in the form of nitrates) in soil is sometimes associated with the appearance of photosynthetic but carnivorous “meat-eating” plants such as the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula).

Fly Trap